Climate Science

Climate Science Explained by Team Norvergence

The planet’s climate has changed throughout history. In the last 650,000 years, environmentalists at Norvergence found that there have been 7 cycles of glacial advance and retreat that has a huge impact on climate change. The global annual surface air temperature of earth has increased by about 1.0°C over the last 120 years.

The earth has already seen a record-breaking climate-related weather extreme and this trend is expected to continue over upcoming climate timescales.

The various studies or researches, based on extensive evidence found that climate change is extremely linked with human activities, especially emissions of greenhouse gases.

Human Fingerprint on Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)

There is no doubt that greenhouse gases are important to the survival of humans and other living things, keeping earth livable by stopping some of the sun’s warm reflecting into the atmosphere.

But, because of human supported deforestation, industrialization, and large scale agricultural activities, the level of greenhouse gases have risen exponentially. Norvergence wants all of you to know about the following things:

  • The concentration of GHGs is directly linked to the average global temperature on Earth
  • Since the time of the Industrial revolution, the mean global temperature is rising nonstop
  • Carbon Dioxide (the product of burning fossil fuels) is accounted for about two-thirds of GHGs.

Not only GHGs, but there are also many other factors lead to climate change. We will discuss it on this website but let’s start from Step 1 i.e.

Human Fingerprint on Greenhouse Gases

Physical Drivers of Climate Change

This section lays out the foundation of climate change by explaining its physical drivers and the principle radiative forcings and the different variety of feedback responses.

Radiative Forcing (RF): It is used to quantify a radiative imbalance in Earth’s atmosphere and is expressed as a change in net radiative flux (W/m2). 

Effective Radiative Forcing (ERF): It is defined as its RF plus rapid adjustment(s) to that RF. 

Drivers of climate change: Natural drivers (solar irradiance, volcanoes), Anthropogenic drivers (principal well-mixed greenhouse gases, other well-mixed greenhouse gases, water vapor, ozone, aerosols, land surface, and contrails).

Physical Drivers of Climate Change

Psychosocial and Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change

Features & Distribution of Climate Change

It analyzes the causes of observed changes in climate change. It helps in-

  • Determining whether a human influence on climate variables.
  • Evaluating whether model simulations are consistent with observed trends or other changes in the climate system.

Types of Features & Distribution of Climate Change :

  • Attribution of trends or long-term changes in climate variables
  • Attribution of changes in extremes
  • Attribution of weather or climate events
  • Attribution of climate-related impacts
  • Estimation of climate sensitivity using observational constraints

Human Role in Future Climate

Human Role in Future Climate

Earth climate changes in response to both natural and anthropogenic drivers. 

The influence of natural drivers on the external forcing of Earth’s climate is overwhelmed by human emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and other greenhouse gases.

Due to the buildup of atmospheric CO2 from human emissions, ocean acidification, and climate change are already occurring at a massive rate.

Facts That Supports Fighting Climate Change By Planting Trees

Temperature Changes in the United States

Observed changes in annual average temperature (°F) for each National Climate Assessment region.

  • Changes are the difference between the average for present-day (1986–2016) and the average for the first half of the last century (1901–1960 for the contiguous United States, 1925–1960 for Alaska, Hawai‘i, and the Caribbean).
NCA Region Change in Annual Average Temperature Change in Annual Average Maximum Temperature Change in Annual Average Minimum Temperature
The contiguous U.S. 1.23°F 1.06°F 1.41°F
Northeast 1.43°F 1.16°F 1.70°F
Southeast 0.46°F 0.16°F 0.76°F
Midwest 1.26°F 0.77°F 1.75°F
Great Plains North 1.69°F 1.66°F 1.72°F
Great Plains South 0.76°F 0.56°F 0.96°F
Southwest 1.61°F 1.61°F 1.61°F
Northwest 1.54°F 1.52°F 1.56°F
Alaska 1.67°F 1.43°F 1.91°F
Hawaii 1.26°F 1.01°F 1.49°F
Caribbean 1.35°F 1.08°F 1.60°F

Norvergence: Observed changes in the coldest and warmest daily temperatures (°F) of the year for each National Climate Assessment region in the contiguous United States.

  • Changes are the difference between the average for present-day (1986–2016) and the average for the first half of the last century (1901–1960).
NCA Region Change in Coldest Day of the Year Change in Warmest Day of the Year
Northeast 2.83°F −0.92°F
Southeast 1.13°F −1.49°F
Midwest 2.93°F −2.22°F
Great Plains North 4.40°F −1.08°F
Great Plains South 3.25°F −1.07°F
Southwest 3.99°F 0.50°F
Northwest 4.78°F −0.17°F

Impacts of climate change in Vietnam

Future Scenarios

Stabilizing global temperature at or below a certain threshold such as 3.6°F is important and it generally discusses at the Paris agreement. 

We have to take initiatives to make Global net carbon emissions reach zero.

Future Scenarios